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Blood Group Antigen (BGA) Glycan Array

Blood group antigens are the glycan structures presented on blood cells and various other proteins, tissues, and secretions that determine blood type, and also indicate the existence of certain circulating antibodies that attack foreign blood antigens. The most common blood types are categorized into ‘A’, ‘B’, or ‘O’ depending on the basic structure of the blood antigens, although smaller variations in these structures classify them further into distinct sub-types.

These antigens and blood group antibodies not only help identify blood type cross-reactivity for transfusions and transplants, but they’re also involved in the mediation of pathogens, viruses, and diseased cells.  There is a correlation between blood type and susceptibility to certain diseases, which indicates that the properties of these antigens and respective circulating antibodies affect the specific and non-specific interactions involved with disease pathogenesis. Research on the underlying dynamics that describe the relationship between disease risk and blood group antigens is currently limited.

The blood group antigen (BGA) glycan array is an advanced, high-throughput tool that allows screening of relatively small amounts of serum samples or other BGA-binding samples of interest to determine the reactivity of antibodies or proteins that would interact with specific blood groups.  This tool can aid in providing a more detailed analysis of blood type and donor compatibility, or help researchers investigate the role of blood antigen interactions related to disease.

BGA Glycan Features

Typical Binding Assay Result from the BGA Glycan Array

The BGA Glycan Array was assayed with Anti-blood group A antibody (1:50 dilution), followed by anti-mouse IgM-AF555 antibody (5 μg/ml). The array was scanned with a microarray scanner at 532nm wavelength.  The positive control 3 (human IgM) shows binding as well as all Blood Group A antigens.